# Python Numbers

## Python Numbers

June 14, 2018
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This article will guide you about the use of numbers in python. It will explain various functionalities and builtin functions associated with it.

## Numbers

### Type Conversion

int(x)

Convert x to a plain integer

``````>>> int(3.45)
3
>>> int("34")
34
``````

float(x)

Convert x to a floating-point number

``````>>> float(34)
34.0
>>> float("123.45")
123.45
``````

complex(x, y)

Convert x and y to a complex number with real part x and imaginary part y. x and y are numeric expressions.

Note: if y is not provided then y or imaginary part is considered 0.

``````>>> complex(23)
(23+0j)
>>> complex(2,5)
(2+5j)
``````

chr(x)

Converts an integer to a character.

``````>>> chr(65)
'A'
>>> chr(97)
'a'
``````

hex(x)

Converts an integer to a hexadecimal string.

``````>>> hex(16)
'0x10'
>>> hex(34)
'0x22'
``````

oct(x)

Converts an integer to an octal string.

``````>>> oct(8)
'0o10'
>>> oct(20)
'0o24'
``````

### Mathematical Functions

abs(x)

The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero

``````>>> abs(12.45)
12.45
>>> abs(-32)
32
``````

ceil(x)

The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x

``````>>> import math
>>> math.ceil(-12.75)
-12
>>> math.ceil(18.12)
19
>>> math.ceil(95.98)
96
>>> math.ceil(math.pi)
4
``````

exp(x)

The exponential of x: ex

``````>>> import math
>>> math.exp(1.2)
3.3201169227365472
>>> math.exp(-4)
0.01831563888873418
``````

floor(x)

The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x

``````>>> import math
>>> math.floor(-12.75)
-13
>>> math.floor(15.32)
15
>>> math.floor(20.95)
20
>>> math.floor(math.pi)
3
``````

log(x)

The natural logarithm of x, for x > 0 i.e `ln(x)`

``````>>> import math
>>> math.log(45)
3.8066624897703196
``````

log10(x)

The base-10 logarithm of x for x > 0

``````>>> import math
>>> math.log10(1000)
3.0
>>> math.log10(56)
1.7481880270062005
``````

max(x1, x2,…)

The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity

``````>>> max(10, 32, -45, 90, 29, 67)
90
``````

min(x1, x2,…)

The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity

``````>>> min(10, 32, -45, 90, 29, 67)
-45
``````

modf(x)

The fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.modf(27.12)
(0.120000000000001, 27.0)
>>> math.modf(34.72)
(0.7199999999999989, 34.0)
>>> math.modf(math.pi)
(0.14159265358979312, 3.0)
``````

pow(x, y)

The value of x**y.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.pow(100, 2)
10000.0
>>> math.pow(100, -2)
0.0001
>>> math.pow(2, 4)
16.0
>>> math.pow(3, 0)
1.0
``````

round(x [,n])

x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0

``````>>> round(70.23456)
70
>>> round(90.54)
91
>>> round(56.659,1)
56.7
>>> round(80.264, 2)
80.26
>>> round(100.000056, 3)
100.0
>>> round(-100.000056, 3)
-100.0
``````

sqrt(x)

The square root of x for x > 0

``````>>> import math
>>> math.sqrt(100)
10.0
>>> math.sqrt(7)
2.6457513110645907
``````

### Random Number Functions

choice(seq)

A random item from a list, tuple, or string

``````>>> import random
>>> random.choice(range(100))
76
>>> random.choice([1, 2, 3, 5, 9])
1
>>> random.choice('Hello World')
'l'
``````

randrange ([start,] stop [,step])

A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step)

``````>>> import random
>>> random.randrange(1, 100, 2) # Randomly choose odd number
85
>>> random.randrange(100)
67
>>> random.randrange(100)
72
``````

random()

A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1

``````>>> import random
>>> random.random()
0.196397224741498
>>> random.random()
0.7937653884184298
``````

shuffle(lst)

Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None.

``````>>> import random
>>> list = [20, 16, 10, 5]
>>> random.shuffle(list)
>>> list
[5, 16, 10, 20]
>>> random.shuffle(list)
>>> list
[10, 5, 16, 20]
``````

uniform(x, y)

A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y

``````>>> import random
>>> random.uniform(5, 10)
8.651180490478254
>>> random.uniform(7, 14)
10.700635491471733
>>> random.uniform(7, 14)
11.845388203697608
``````

### Trigonometric Functions

degrees(x)

Converts angle x from radians to degrees.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.degrees(3)
171.88733853924697
>>> math.degrees(-3)
-171.88733853924697
>>> math.degrees(0)
0.0
>>> math.degrees(math.pi)
180.0
>>> math.degrees(math.pi/2)
90.0
>>> math.degrees(math.pi/4)
45.0
``````

Converts angle x from degrees to radians.

``````>>> import math
0.05483113556160755
3.141592653589793
6.283185307179586
``````

hypot(x, y)

Return the Euclidean norm, `sqrt(x*x + y*y)`

``````>>> import math
>>> math.hypot(3, 4)
5.0
>>> math.hypot(-3, 3)
4.242640687119285
>>> math.hypot(0, 2)
2.0
``````

sin(x)

Return the sine of x radians

``````>>> import math
>>> math.sin(math.pi/4)
0.7071067811865475
>>> math.sin(math.pi/2)
1.0
>>> math.sin(3)
0.1411200080598672
``````

cos(x)

Return the cosine of x radians.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.cos(math.pi/4)
0.7071067811865476
>>> math.cos(math.pi)
-1.0
``````

tan(x)

Return the tangent of x radians.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.tan(math.pi/4)
0.9999999999999999
>>> math.tan(math.pi/2)
1.633123935319537e+16
>>> math.tan(math.pi)
-1.2246467991473532e-16
>>> math.tan(3*math.pi/4)
-1.0000000000000002
``````

asin(x)

Return the arc sine of x, in radians.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.asin(1)
1.5707963267948966
``````

acos(x)

Return the arc cosine of x, in radians.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.acos(1)
0.0
>>> math.acos(0)
1.5707963267948966
``````

atan(x)

Return the arc tangent of x, in radians.

``````>>> import math
>>> math.atan(1)
0.7853981633974483
>>> math.atan(3)
1.2490457723982544
``````

atan2(y, x)

Return atan(y / x), in radians

``````>>> import math
>>> math.atan2(-0.50,-0.50)
-2.356194490192345
>>> math.atan2(0.50,0.50)
0.7853981633974483
>>> math.atan2(5,5)
0.7853981633974483
>>> math.atan2(-10,10)
-0.7853981633974483
>>> math.atan2(10,20)
0.4636476090008061
``````

### Mathematical Constants

pi

The mathematical constant pi

``````>>> import math
>>> math.pi
3.141592653589793
``````

e

The mathematical constant e

``````>>> import math
>>> math.e
2.718281828459045
``````

### Others

`a**b`

Exponent − Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators.

``````>>> a=2
>>> b=5
>>> a**b
32
``````

a//b

Floor Division − The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed.

``````>>> 15//4
3
``````

x is y

Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise. x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y).